June 9, 2019

Lessons from a waterhole

We had spent the day driving from waterhole to waterhole in this large, dry national park in southern Africa. The trees and shrubs on the edge of the road were white with the dust from cars who had made the same trek the day before, and somewhere out there were elephants.

“You arrived too late,” we were told at one waterhole. “There was a black rhino here just five minutes ago, but he has wandered into the bush past that large camel thorn tree.”

And so it went—a journey of being 15 minutes early or 5 minutes late, over and over. Should you sit and wait at an empty waterhole, or move to another one just 15 km away?

For the elephants and rhino, there was certainty. They knew exactly when they would appear for water, but they would not share their appointment calendar with us. Hidden by trees, we could only see evidence of their presence by the large, softball-sized chunks of poo that resembled a shredded globe of garden mulch. The poo mocked us, “Late again.”

Finally, as day was ending, we began to leave a waterhole after watching four giraffe decide whether it was safe to drink—necks and heads tentatively down, then back up at the smallest noise or burst of wind. Giraffe are so shy; it is amazing they do not die of thirst at the edge of the waterhole. But, eventually, the world synchronizes for them—the wind dies, nothing stirs, and the waterhole is empty of other animals. The giraffe bend down to drink.

As we turned to leave, a portion of the universe aligned for us and the elephants as slowly 1, 2, 3, 4, and then eventually 50 wrinkled, gray creatures silently stomped out of the forest towards the water. The smallest of the herd began to run, disregarding all thoughts of danger, and their mothers trotted after them. The entire group walked into the water, drank gallons, and finally baptized themselves with sprays of water and mud. They churned the mud with their feet and reveled in the flying muck. Some of the young were so small they had not learned to use their trunk, but they giddily twirled their little nose-tubes like a baton  and were covered in goo by the by-products of others’ mud baths.

Just like that, it was over. A leader turned back to the bush, and the herd disappeared as quickly as it had emerged. We were left in silence at the waterhole with a single vulture who had silently watched the chaos.

As we drove away, we passed another car just arriving to the empty waterhole. “Justice,” we grinned, and we drove out into the world willing to be disappointed again.

Elephants at Klein Namutoni waterhole, Etosha National Park, Namibia. June 2019, Photo by Larkin Powell

January 1, 2019

Basics about applying for grad school in wildlife or natural resources

If you are near graduation or have recently graduated with a degree in wildlife management or other natural resources management area, you may be considering graduate school. If you have no idea how to do that, you're not alone. Here is some background that I share with my undergrad advisees when we meet to talk about grad school. I hope this helps get you started. In addition, you should talk to current grad students (the TA in your mammalogy lab, for example) to see how they got their position and talk to professors you know about the process.
Image from kissclipart.com

LIMITED OPENINGS: While undergrad programs typically accept anyone who meets ACT, GPA or other requirements, grad programs are limited in capacity by two things: (1) Each professor can only take on so many students (typically my lab has had an average of 4-5 grad students, which means I take on about 1 or 2 students per year) because of large time commitments to graduate students. A professor is going to be working with our grad students on their thesis project, logistics of the projects, finding funding to continue projects, and preparing students as they write their thesis, so we often meet with them for at least 3-4 hours each week, and we may spend a large portion of our summer working to assist them with their field research. (2) Funding--grad students typically have an assistantship to pay a small stipend (UNL's is currently around $20K per year) and tuition remission (students on assistantship usually pay no tuition, just fees each semester).  Obviously, the professor/adviser needs to find that funding (sometimes with the student's help), which limits how many students we can accept. The Department or School may have some assistantships, but they are also limited in number (in my case, UNL's School of Natural Resources has funds to pay assistantships for 2-3 new MS students per year).

So, all of that is just to note that graduate positions at a given department are limited each year, which means it is incredibly valuable to investigate opportunities at a large number of departments--for example, keeping track of available assistantships on the Texas A&M Job Board (serving all schools nationally).

If you are geographically limited by a relationship or family circumstance (that's the case for many people), it will be VERY important for you to get field experience and investigate all opportunities with faculty in programs near you. That is, you will need to be very competitive as an applicant if you are limited to applying to only 1-2 programs. You may also want to consider a non-thesis program in this situation (see below).

 It is often the case that a potential graduate adviser who looks to be a perfect match in terms of their research program has a full lab with no openings that year, or they may not have funds to bring on a new student that year. And of course, when they do have an opening, they will have multiple applicants for the position, and many good students will not be selected for that opening. So, the search for a program takes some stamina and stick-to-it-ness to keep investigating and not allow yourself to get distressed at lack of a match or a positive response from a professor when emailing them. Everyone gets rejection letters, so don't let that make you stop applying.

THE BACK DOOR AND FRONT DOOR: I like to describe two ways to get into grad school.

First, you can apply 'through the front door' to the department for assistantship positions that the department's Graduate Committee controls. That means an official application and application fee to the University. The Committee will look at all applicants, assess the match to faculty in their department, and select the best students.  Some departments, especially Biology departments, have large numbers of Teaching Assistantships to assign to incoming students. Those students will be required to teach labs for their assistantship.  Some departments also have Research Assistantships that may not require teaching, but instead are used to recruit high-quality students to their research program. But, the bottom lines is that the Front Door type of applications relies heavily on GPA, GRE (in some cases), and other types of rankings that can be determined from an application, essay, or resume. The Committee is trying to bring in the best students they can, but they don't usually spend much time talking to the applicants. However, some departments do bring a short list of applicants to campus for interviews. Additionally, the Front Door method provides an assistantship, but it does not include any research funding, so the student's adviser will have to provide that or work with the student to quickly find that funding (to buy radio transmitters, pay for gas, technicians, or lab materials--whatever is required for the thesis research project). Students with high GPAs or a set of exciting experiences on their CV/resume may do well in the Front Door approach, because of how students are selected by the Committee.

The Back Door method is to apply to an individual professor's advertisement for a position (such as those listed on the Texas A&M Job Board). Let's say I have a position available--that means that I have received some grant funds to pay for the assistantship, tuition remission, and the research funds. I post the ad, and get several unofficial applications (they don't apply to the University, rather they send their materials to me--they don't pay the application fee). I personally sort through the applications, select 3-4 people, and interview them over the phone/Skype. I might bring the top candidate to campus to make sure I think they are a good match in person, and to allow them to see they think they can work with me, and to see if UNL/SNR is a good match for them as well. I then select them, at which time the student applies to the University and pays the application fee. I ask our department's Graduate Committee to look at the application, and they do so knowing that I want the student (which means that I believe the student meets the requirements) and I have funding for the student. The Committee's decision is largely a rubber-stamp at that point. The Back Door method, therefore, is very directed towards specific projects--I might advertise for a waterfowl project or a quail project or a painted turtle project. And, the professor may take experience into account (e.g., experience working with waterfowl or quail or general field experience) in addition to academic scores.  Students with lower GPAs may find the Back Door method to be an easier way to get into school, as it relies less on the GPA, typically. Students can also contact the professor directly and talk to them during that process.

THESIS and NON-THESIS MS PROGRAMS: the traditional MS program involves the proposal of a thesis topic, carrying out the research, and analyzing the data to write the thesis.  At UNL, MS students need 30 credits for a thesis-oriented MS degree. They take at least 20 credits (so, only 6 or 7 courses) of 800-level or 900-level courses, and they get the other 10 credits as 'research credits'--a course taken similar to Independent Study that gives them credit for preparing and writing the thesis.  Thesis programs are essential if a student wants to go on to a PhD, and a thesis-based MS may be preferred by many agency or NGO jobs that involve research or want the thesis experience for their hires.

Non-thesis MS programs are becoming very popular in recent years, given the preference for a post-graduate degree by many hiring firms and the limited number of thesis-based MS opportunities. Some of these programs are available on-line, and regardless of on-campus or on-line, they might often require something like 36 credits of coursework including a small project (might be literature-based or a small research project).  These students still have a graduate adviser, but they will not meet with them as often as a research student. The non-thesis Masters program gives the student additional skills and knowledge in a special area. Some firms, like environmental consulting firms or NGOs, and some agencies like students with this background. Compared to thesis-based Masters students, non-thesis Masters students might take more courses in policy, management logistics, leadership, human resources, or other topics that give them critical experience that makes them a good employee when research is not required in a position.

The other potential benefit of a non-thesis Masters is that the admission is more like undergraduate admissions--typically students apply and are accepted based on minimum requirements. However, the trade-off is that the student has to pay tuition and fees on their own. There are few programs that provide assistantships for non-thesis graduate students.

Bottom line--these are very different programs. Talk to several people. Get advice on which is best for you.

WHAT DO I NEED TO BE ACCEPTED?  Students are accepted to graduate programs based on 3-4 main criteria. First, undergraduate GPA (and maybe GRE--some places still require this wretched test that has been shown to not correlate with potential). Your GPA is a record of your academic abilities, and graduate courses are typically harder than undergraduate courses. Second, experience. How have you spent your summers or free time? Have you worked with a professor on a small project? Did you do an Honors project? Have you gotten some field experiences during a summer job or extended classroom experience? Third, aspirations. Your statement of purpose essay about your professional interests is incredibly important. Why do you think graduate school is the direction for you? How will a graduate degree (and specifically the one to which you are applying) benefit you? It's not enough to say you need the degree to be employable. And, fourth, "match". Your potential advisor will be assessing your general attitude, eagerness, confidence, and communication ability during an interview. For a thesis program, you are literally being hired for a 2-3 year (Masters) or 4-5 year (PhD) job. If I'm hiring an employee, I want to hire someone that will be nice to work with as a colleague during their program--I'm going to be meeting with you and working with you in the field. I want to know that I'm going to enjoy this experience, to be honest.

This emphasizes the fact that a graduate program is very different from an undergraduate program. You are applying for a special relationship with an adviser (so you need to make sure you like your potential adviser as well).

Now, if you had a bad freshman year, and you ended up with a low GPA, don't give up. Front Door-type applications may be harder for you (see above), so concentrate on Back Door opportunities. And, you are going to need to augment your lower GPA with more experience. It is all about balance--with a lower GPA, you are going to need something else to show an adviser that they should consider you on par with a person that did not have that bad freshman year or a bad experience in Chemistry. Plenty of current professors had lower-than-you-would-guess GPAs! We know that everyone doesn't get a 4.0, and we also know that some 4.0 GPA students do not have the experience in the field that we want for students in our lab. In your letter to a professor (see below), explain the totality of your package. If you have a GPA lower than 3.0, your potential adviser may need some ammunition (even if they want you) to convince the Graduate Committee in the department to accept you. So, help them with that argument.

Also, I think it's important to mention that you should also pay attention to your history. If you didn't do well in math and statistics as an undergraduate, you probably shouldn't be applying for graduate programs that require a lot of quantitative skills like statistical analysis or population modeling. If you tried very hard as an undergraduate, but just couldn't pull off a GPA higher than a 3.0, that's not a career-ending thing. You may need to get experience and apply for agency jobs at a lower level and work your way up. Maybe graduate school is not for you--and it's important to state that graduate school is not the only way to a career in natural resources. Talk to a person who will listen to you, and investigate other possible paths for you.

WHERE TO APPLY: How do you know where to apply? Who offers graduate programs in wildlife management or other fields? 

First, you can Google 'wildlife graduate program'.  Duh, right?  That's going to give you a lot of hits to track down, but it might be inefficient. But, maybe it will lead to a surprise.

Second, you can look at journal papers that you've read in courses or used for a term paper. Who are the authors? What University is listed as their address? Who is doing research that sounds interesting to you? 

Third, log onto Twitter and start following people who post about their research. Twitter will help you find other people to follow. This will take a bit of time, but might unveil some opportunities you hadn't considered, including the potential to work with researchers in other countries.

Last, watch job postings for assistantships listed with The Wildlife Society, American Fisheries Society, Ecological Society of America, or the Texas A&M Job Board (a huge database of openings serving all universities in the US--I post my announcements there). If you don't see a topic of interest, these postings will still give you information about what universities have wildlife programs and where those programs are located.  For example (and yes...this makes your job very difficult), some wildlife programs might be in a "Department of Fisheries and Wildlife", while others are in a "School of Natural Resources", while others are in a "Department of Biology" or "School of Life Sciences".

CONTACTING POTENTIAL ADVISERS: When you have prepared your CV/resume and taken the GRE (yes, it's a horrible measure of a student but some places still require them), it's time to start contacting professors. You should begin this process in mid- to late-Fall Semester, as many departments have late December or early January deadlines for applications for the following Fall Semester admittance. 

Send a short email to the adviser (you'll be sending to many people). You can briefly describe where you are (senior, junior, post-graduate) in life, your general area of interests, and why you think they might be a good match for your interests. Mention something specific on their web page that you found interesting (it shows you aren't just emailing everyone in a wildlife department). And, try to make each email somewhat unique, especially if emailing more than one person in a single department--because we often forward these emails to our colleagues in case they might find you interesting. If they have already received your email, and it looks exactly like the one I just forwarded to them, that looks like you're not really interested in each person as an individual. And, we have egos.

In your email, you should attach: your resume, a scan of your transcripts (unofficial) with grades, and a scan of your GRE scores (unofficial). Think of it from our angle (the professor): if we are excited by your email, we want to check to make sure you stack up, academically, and through your experience. To me, someone who does not send any of that information looks like they are hiding something. See above for how to augment a low GPA with experience, and tell me about that in your letter.

Also, I suggest that if you have any traits that might open up some additional funding opportunities for me as the adviser within my University, tell me. There are programs at many universities to support assistantships for Hispanic, Native American, African American, and international students. So, drop that fact at some point in your letter ("I'm excited to contribute to diversity in the wildlife profession as a passionate, experienced Hispanic student."). I might be able to find funding for you in a unique location that you are not aware of--so tell me. Help me help you!

DON'T GIVE UP: as I mentioned above, if you do all things listed here, it's still a good chance you will get a "I'm sorry but I don't have a spot in my lab" letter. Don't give up. Don't send a nasty email back (sometimes funding opens up later, and I now have your materials on-hand). Keep applying. 

Good luck with your quest for a graduate program!

February 2, 2018

On going away periodically and fallowing the fields

Any visitor to the house is interesting when you live in the country, up a quarter-mile lane. During my childhood, my mother routinely entertained the Avon lady with her lotions and smell-goods, and sometimes the mailman ventured up our lane with a package for my father. But the encyclopedia salesmen were the most interesting, as they always carried an example volume ("A", typically, but sometimes "N"). Their visits seemed timed to ensure that my brother and I would be home, so we could devour brilliant pages of Antarctica, Antietam, and Appaloosa while my mother smiled and listened for the price. "Maybe next time." 

Seriously, trying to sell encyclopedias in farm country in Iowa during the emerging farm crisis of the 1980s must have been only job more challenging than farming at that time.

At some point, however, a decision was made to purchase the entire set of Encyclopedia Americana with the two-volume dictionary. I don't know if it was a good year for corn or a smoother salesman, but it turned out to be a well-used purchase. My brother was (and is) publicly known for this behavior, but the actual truth is that both he and I used to sit in our shared bedroom and leaf through "P" and "R" and "C" and their peer volumes into the night, exploring the world that existed beyond Rural Route 4, Creston, Iowa. 

And, what a world it was. Tribesmen of Indonesia danced in those pages, and the wildlife of Africa and Asia charged around the spine of the books. The volumes put our lives in context, there on the farm. Thinking about it now, I'm sure that Donald Trump never sat down with an encyclopedia.

Fast forward to 1998, the year I finished my doctorate program and decided to take a pay cut from my short postdoc in Georgia to accept a full time teaching gig at a small undergraduate University in eastern Iowa. Like the encyclopedia, there was something about a career in academia that seemed enchanting. After 20 years of teaching and research, I can confidently say that the workload is never ending. No teacher at any level every says "Well, I'm all caught up, now." And, the bane of a research professor's job is that there are only so many minutes in the day, and our brains are wired to continuously think of new ideas and new possibilities for exploration. It is easy to lose oneself in the job.

The way out is the academic sabbatical--an every-seven year break in routine, which, tangentially, had its origins on the top of Mount Sainai with Moses. Leviticus 25 records the following direction to Moses:
When you enter the land that I am giving you, the land shall observe a sabbath for the Lord. 3Six years you shall sow your field, and six years you shall prune your vineyard, and gather in their yield; 4but in the seventh year there shall be a sabbath of complete rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord: you shall not sow your field or prune your vineyard. 5You shall not reap the aftergrowth of your harvest or gather the grapes of your unpruned vine: it shall be a year of complete rest for the land. 6You may eat what the land yields during its sabbath—you, your male and female slaves, your hired and your bound laborers who live with you; 7for your livestock also, and for the wild animals in your land all its yield shall be for food.
As a wildlife biologist working in agricultural landscapes, I find the ethic behind these directions to fallow the fields in the seventh year intriguing. Incredibly insightful, actually. 

But, I find the ideals hidden in that passage even more interesting as I begin an academic sabbatical period in the pastoral lands of southern England. Our family has arrived for a multi-month stay, during which I will be engaged with the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust to assist with research on grouse in agricultural landscapes. A break for the mind. No pruning. None of the general reaping. Instead, preparing for the next period of our lives by living off the energies that have been invested over the last years. Side note: if the energies we invested to clean our house and prepare for the sabbatical abroad are included, we have no worries of running out of energy...

I am a big believer in taking advantage of the sabbatical opportunities afforded to university faculty. Our job is a unique one, for sure. And, it is stimulating and rewarding to have the opportunity to step away periodically and engage in a new direction--to bring back new experiences and information to our courses and research back home. It is certainly breath-taking, almost 40 years after first viewing "England" in the Americana set, to wander into the little village that serves as the backdrop for this time with family and new friends. 

Today, it seemed worthy to record the first day of this adventure--with a feeling like opening the first page of an unread volume of the encyclopedia. What comes next? Not sure, but it doesn't matter.  I'm on sabbatical.   

November 21, 2017

The gray bits about elephants and hunting

It's more complicated than you'd think

In the past weeks, news of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's decision to allow imports of elephants from Zimbabwe has been front-and-center. I thought a few facts might be useful as folks weigh their response to this decision. Now, even President Trump has described his own administration's action as a 'horror show'.  Is it?

African elephant in Etosha National Park, Namibia. 2017.
Photo by Kelly Powell.
Most gut reaction to the news is shock--perhaps partially because most liberals (I'm one) are primed to react with shock to anything the Trump Administration decides to do--indeed, Don, Jr. decided to pose with his trophy elephant's just-removed tail in a manner that I don't feel is respectful of the species and respectful of the process of hunting in general--and those photos fuel anger about the issue. That didn't help. But, the strong reaction is also partially because most folks don't know what is happening with elephants and elephant conservation and management around the world.  So, let's address the latter. I can't control Don, Jr.'s actions.

Some quick clarifications:

  • Elephants are listed as a species of conservation concern under international agreement 
  • Poaching is a huge problem in elephant conservation.  The African Wildlife Foundation says 8% of the population is poached each year. So, is habitat destruction and encroachment of humans into wild places in Africa. 
  • However, the plight of elephants varies tremendously from country to country. 
  • The most recent US Fish and Wildlife Service decision only applies to elephants hunted in Zimbabwe. 
  • The decision only affects elephants imported from Zimbabwe to the United States (elephants can still be legally hunted by trophy hunters in Zimbabwe from other countries). 
  • Elephants can currently be imported by hunters who hunt in Namibia and South Africa, as well as elephants hunted during certain time in Zambia and Zimbabwe.  
  • The decisions made about elephant import to the US, made by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, come down to the question, "Does prohibition or allowance of import support conservation of the species?"

Be honest--did you know that elephants could still be legally hunted in Africa? Many people are not aware of this, and cannot conceive of it. 

How to react?  One problem with this issue is that conservation groups disagree on the role of hunting as a support for conservation.  The African Wildlife Foundation would like to retain the ban on imports of elephants to the US from Zimbabwe. In contrast, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) points to the example of Namibia where regulated trophy hunting has had positive results to support the recovery of wildlife populations that were previously headed for eradication. Note that WWF uses a similar rubric as the US Fish and Wildlife Service--only supporting trophy hunting when there is clear evidence that it helps conserve the species.

Another problem with knowing how to react is that most citizens of the US cannot imagine life in Africa. I've lived in Namibia for one year, and I've stayed with families that live in mud huts in the bush. They can recount stories of people being killed by elephants and crop damage by elephants--the recovery of elephant populations in Namibia has been astonishing. And, this causes human-wildlife conflicts similar to those issues with wolves in the western US and deer-car collisions in much of the eastern US. Hunting is a management option in those situations. When problem elephants in Namibia are identified by authorities in the regulatory agency, a permit is issued to a waiting list of clients of professional hunters. The money paid by the client for the hunting opportunity may be US$25-50,000. And, that money is designated to be used to support conservation in the community, just as hunting supports habitat conservation in the US.

Now--a good question is whether that money will reach its intended target (see this National Geographic article on the topic), and this is one reason for the recent decision by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.  The Service decided that regulations and political structure in Zimbabwe had improved so that a client could trust that these funds reach their destination. You can read the decision here. All politics aside, I truly believe that the decision has nothing to do with Trump's family's hunting interests--but the most recent political upheaval in Zimbabwe (I predict) will most likely mean a reversal of this specific decision. Zimbabwe's political climate is now different than when the US Fish and Wildlife service made their decision, and it's hard to justify the decision based on a more stable regulatory system until Zimbabwe decides who will be their leader.

This is a tough issue, and I'm not going to argue a specific side here. Hopefully you can think about your decision on the issue with a bit more information about elephant conservation and the role of hunting of elephants in Africa. I hunt deer to fill a freezer, but I can't imagine hunting an elephant--it's a personal decision. I'd much rather pay for a photo safari, and I'm not rich enough to even think about elephant hunting.

But, stay tuned as human encroachment into elephant habitat will only increase in future years, and elephant conservation will continue to be a tricky issue.  For the moment, I hope the information provided here shows how 'gray' the issue can be for these large, gray mammals, even for conservation organizations.

Time-lapse video of elephants at a waterhole in Etosha National Park. Video by Larkin Powell.

April 15, 2017

Easter is in the wind

If you were to ask me about Easter when I was growing up, I’d tell you about the lamb cake my mother made each year.  It was a white-frosted lamb sitting in the midst of a pasture of coconut that had been colored with green food coloring, accented with colored jelly-beans or other bright Easter candy that was left over from the Easter Bunny.

That cake required a double-sided mold, and to me the magic of Easter was how my mother knew how much cake batter to put inside the mold so that it would expand perfectly to fill all the cracks and crevices—up to the ears. 
Easter was usually a time of family gatherings when I grew up, and a busy time because my Dad’s occupation has involved doing taxes that were also always due around Easter.  One year, I think my Mom was distracted and she set the cake mold in the oven upside down and used too little batter because the poor lamb came out faceless.  In the natural world, this would have been a problem for the creature, but it was quickly remedied with various materials and a lot of frosting…and the next day, the lamb had his face, and all was well before we cut him into slices of rich chocolate cake with vanilla ice cream.
My brother and I didn’t get a lot of candy during the rest of the year, and Easter was also a time of joy when we searched for our Easter basket that was loaded with jellybeans and chocolate.  We would go to church, but the main memory of Easter Sunday is of spending the afternoon with cousins at my Grandparents’ house. 
Easter was an odd holiday, timewise—first, the visit to Grandma’s house was always a lot shorter than the visit at Christmas, and we cousins had much less time to get out toys or perhaps get in a short game of football if the weather was nice.  It was always over too quickly before we had to get in the car to go home.
And, of course, Easter never arrived on the same date, so there was a mystery around Easter—it would be announced rather than anticipated like its cousin December holiday.  And, as an adult, I have forgotten to put Easter on my spring calendar more than once, which has bewildered my mother to no end. How could you forget Easter?
Easter means different things to different people, but to me it was always a reminder of spring. A promise of new life. The grandest metaphoric myth that provides hope while reminding us of our insignificance in the cycle of life that has happened for all time. Birth and death. Birth from death. Emptiness transformed to wholeness.
For the past 10 years, my job has been to train fledgling biologists to observe, capture, and start to record data on prairie-chickens in Nebraska. For me, this has marked Spring, and usually by the time I have them trained, it is time for Easter to happen.  So, perhaps I haven’t forgotten Easter—in some ways, I have been more in tune than ever in my life with the natural rhythms that are used to describe the timing of Easter—the first full moon that occurs after the vernal equinox, or the first day of Spring.  I’ve been out and watched the moon waning in the morning as the prairie-chickens gather to continue their eons-old cycle of mating in the midst of the prairie.
Except this year. For the first year since coming to Nebraska, I have no field projects to start in the spring. No students to train.  But, I did have a visiting student from Thailand who needed to see the sandhill cranes, and so we took her to the river to watch them dance in the fields and find shelter at night on the sandbars of the Platte.
If anything can substitute for the prairie-chicken, it is the sandhill crane.  Darkness came to the river as thousands of birds descended, and eventually we could tell they were there only because of their calls to each other.  Those birds must have many adventures during the day, because they sure have a lot to talk about when they land in the river and get acquainted with their neighbors again.
As we walked away to our vehicles in the dark, there was a promise behind us.  The sun would rise, the cranes would leave and as darkness descended again, they would return until the spring winds carry them away until next spring when we see them once more. Cycles of life, in our own back yard.
There is a Christian story that will be read in churches on Sunday about a group of ladies who found an empty tomb. But, I have an opinion that if a Christian were to live a life focused solely on the miracle of that empty tomb, without connecting to those around them, they have missed the message of Christ’s life.  Indeed, the writer of the Gospel of Matthew states that the second-most important commandment is to love others. In similar fashion, Buddhism also suggests that we create meaning by helping others. There are many paths with the same message.
The moon has been growing from a slim crescent the last few days, until becoming a full moon on April 11.  It is time for Easter.  How do we find ways to reach out beyond ourselves? I encourage you to start by exploring the sacred spaces around you. Find the connections between the message of Easter and your life by looking at your flowerbed or taking a short walk in a park or a timber.  Find new flowers and new buds on branches. Look up in the sky to watch the geese and other birds migrating north, and find a way to watch the sun rise and set on the same day.

Then, reach out to someone. We can’t all make a lamb cake, but find a way to mark this special time of year.  Football games in the spring mud are good. Family gatherings or coffee with friends also work. Giving someone the surprise equivalent to a basket full of chocolate is a brilliant idea.  The message of Easter is that it doesn’t matter if your effort falls short.  A lamb cake’s face can be repaired, and next year will be here before we know it to try again.

Easter is always in the wind. Happy Easter, everyone!